20th Century – Page 356 – Deadliest American Disasters and Large-Loss-of-Life Events (2024)

–76-78 Blanchard tally based on State and Maritime breakouts below.

Summary of Fatalities by State

Connecticut ( 7)

Georgia ( 3)

Illinois ( 7)

Indiana ( 3)

Iowa ( 2)

Kentucky ( 2)

Massachusetts ( 16)

Michigan ( 3-4)

Missouri ( 1)

Nebraska ( 1)

New England Maritime ( 5)

New York (17-18)

Ohio ( 3)

Pennsylvania ( 7)

Rhode Island ( ~9)

Total 76-78

Breakout of Winter Weather Fatalities by State and Locality (where noted):

Connecticut ( 7)

–1 Ansonia, Jan 11. Effects of exposure to severe cold during fishing trip Jan 5.[1]

–1 Derby, Jan 5. Scalded lungs. “In attempt to warm himself…placed mouth over steaming spout…”[2]

–1 Moodus, Jan 4 (body found). Exposure? Body of Patrick O’Neill found in snowdrift.[3]

–4 New Haven railroad yard, Jan 3. Italian snow shovelers.[4]

–3 New Haven near Cedar Hill station, Jan 2. Gang of 20 RR snow shovelers hit by train.[5]

Georgia ( 3)

–1 Americus area, McNeil farm, Dec 25. Snow and wind storm; man killed by flying timbers.[6]

–1 Americus area, Larter plantation, Dec 25. House blown down and man killed.[7]

–1 Rome area ~Berryhill’s crossing and Central RR, on doorsteps. Frozen to death; Jeff Ware.[8]

Illinois ( 7)

–1 Chicago, Dec 25. Traction car runs into train “[d]uring the blinding storm.” James Dooley.[9]

–1 Chicago, Dec 26. Froze to death near Lake Shore & Michigan Southern RR; Frederick Houston.[10]

–1 Chicago, Dec 26. Hit by train engine on Wabash RR at 43rd St. in blinding snow; Archie Stewart, 65.[11]

–1 Chicago, Dec 26. Notes four people dies as a result of Saturday’s blizzard [have noted 3].[12]

–1 Elmwood area, Dec 26. Froze to death; temperature reached 7 below zero, John Weir, 45.[13]

–1 Pana area farm, Jan 5. Froze to death; farmer in his barn; William Ukena, 55.[14]

–1 Peoria, Dec 26. “…found frozen to a tree here…” Temp. 7 below. George Baumgarten.[15]

Indiana ( 3)

–1 Anderson, Dec 25. Traction train car hits man in street during “fiercest part” of blizzard.[16]

–1 Brazil, Dec 30. Froze to death; farmer (W. Akre) froze before getting to home from town.[17]

–1 Earl Park area, Dec 30. Frozen to death; after drinking, tried to walk home during blizzard.[18]

Iowa ( 2)

–1 Davenport, Jan 1-2. Exposure; body found Jan 4; thought to have died ~36 hours earlier; Shipper.[19]

–1 Storm Lake area, Dec 28. Exposure; body of unknown man found mile from Storm Lake.[20]

Kentucky ( 2)

–1 Bennetts Fork, Dec 27. Froze to death in cabin seeking safety from blizzard; Tim Thompson.[21]

–1 Stoney Fork Creek valley near Middlesboro, body found Dec 27 frozen; William Wilson.[22]

Massachusetts (16)

–3 Boston harbor, Dec 26. Dredger Gen Poe, sinks in “one of the heaviest seas ever known.”[23]

–1 Boston, Brookline st., Jan 2. Apparent hypothermia at home “due to the severe weather.” Harvey J. Chick, 67.[24]

–1 Boston, Jan 2. Heart “failure, brought on by the intense weather.” Harvey J. Church, 66.[25]

–1 Boston, Jan 2. Heart attack due to exposure to cold; Captain Joseph Hallet, 70, of Cotuit.[26]

–1 Boston, Jan 2. Heart attack sweeping snow from in front of his house; John Manning, 70.[27]

–1 Boston, Jan 2. Corner of Washington & Bedford, “overcome by the storm,” Calvin T. Whittier, 80.[28]

–1 Boston, Goodnow’s wharf, schooner Maggie Hurley, Jan 4. Fall; numbed by cold sailor.[29]

–1 Cambridge, Jan 2. Man shoveling snow and “blinded by the storm” hit by train; Joseph Battle.[30]

–1 Cambridge, Jan 2. Man sweeping snow out of a switch hit by train during storm; James Beattie.[31]

–1 Charlestown. Jan 3. Exposure; found against fence of rail drawbridge at the Neck; John McNulty, 60.[32]

–1 Nantasket shore, foot of Atlantic Hill, MA. Jan 3. Body of woman washed onto rocks.[33]

–1 North Webster, Jan 4. Found frozen to death in the snow; William Pattison.[34]

–1 Revere, Dec 27. Found frozen to death on Revere street; Frank Morin, 40, of Lynn.[35]

–1 Rockdale, Jan 5. Found frozen to death a short distance from her house; Mrs. Kate Foley, 80.[36]

Michigan ( 3-4)

–3 Bay Port, Jan 2. Froze to death; pre-teen boys out on frozen Bay during “terrific storm.”[37]

–1 West Bay City, Jan 3. Hypothermia? Body found frozen on floor of home; Mrs. Catherine Todd.[38]

Missouri ( 1)

–1 St. Louis, Jan 4-5. Froze to death; traveling salesman, thought to have gone to sleep outdoors.[39]

Nebraska ( 1)

–1 Omaha, Dec 26. Man “found frozen to death in a shed in the north part of the city today.”[40]

New York (17-18)

–1 Fonda area, Jan 2. Track hand hit by train during “blinding snow storm…” William Sconite.[41]

–8 New York City and vicinity by Jan 5; three reported on Jan 5. Cold and exposure.[42]

–1 New York City, Jan 4. Elevated train gateman “found frozen to death at his post.” John Adick.[43]

–5 New York City, Jan 4-5 (24-hours). “Five additional deaths, due directly to the cold…”[44]

–4 NYC, Jan 6. The News, Frederick, MD. “Four Dead In New York.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.

–1 Found frozen to death in street cleaning dept. snow cart; William Brooks.

–3 Found frozen to death; unknown itinerants or homeless men.

–1 NYC, 117th st and Nelson Ave, Jan 6. Hypothermia in barn of employer; John Nicholson, 29.[45]

–4-5 New York City, by Jan 6. Gas asphyxiation; frozen gas pipes thaw, gas asphyxiated.[46]

–1 New York Hotel, 1541 Broadway. Frozen pipe thaws overnight; Frank Coffey.[47]

–1 NYC harbor, barge Claremont cabin, coal gas fumes; Sigmund Goldgrandsen.[48]

–1 Park Ave, Jan 6. Asphyxiated by “escaping gas…freezing of the pipes.” Robert Isbistis, 31.[49]

–1 Shelter Isl., Jan 6. Asphyxiated; illuminating gas after pipes thawed; Frederick C Johnson, 18.[50]

–1 Newburgh station area, Jan 4. Train engine derails; pulling car through “deep snow.” John F. Miller.[51]

–1 Richmond borough [Staten Isl.], Jan 3. Froze to death; body found at golf course; Peter Johnson.[52]

–1 Richmond Terrace, Jan 3. Froze to death in her woodshed; Mrs. Frances Jeanette, 75.[53]

–1 Sauthfields [?], “last week.” Froze to death; William Conklin.[54]

–1 Spencerport, Dec 28. Froze to death; Frank Goft, 54.[55]

–1 Staten Island, Jan 3. Found “frozen to death in a drift near his home…” Frederick Spring, 45.[56]

Ohio ( 3)

–1 Findlay, Jan 5 report. Frozen to death; oil worker Grant Travis.[57]

–1 Findlay area; Froze to death after fall from pole and injury; lineman William Helpen.[58]

–1 Lima, Dec 28. Found frozen to death in snowdrift near home; Charles Wisemeyer, 40.[59]

Pennsylvania ( 7)

–1 Hazleton area. Frozen to death; Upper Lehigh miner on road ~Hazleton; James Pendegast, 63.[60]

–1 Potter Co., late Dec. Froze to death; body of hermit found in “crude dugout.” August Swanson.[61]

–1 Reading, ~Jan 4. Apparent heart attack while shoveling snow; unnamed male.[62]

–1 Shimer’s Cut, Honesdale branch, Jan 3. Froze to death; “little home…” Charles Higgins, 80.[63]

–1 Tamaqua, Jan 4. Frozen to death on road; had left Middleport for home; John Hoffman, 55.[64]

–1 Titusville area, Dec 27 (body found). Froze to death just outside “his little hovel.” Frank Friel.[65]

–1 Womelsdorf, Jan 4; Heart attack “superinduced” by prolonged exposure to “severe cold.” Benjamin Gerhart.[66]

Rhode Island (~9)

–~7 Providence. Severe Cold and exposure; “several” prior to Jan 4 and four on Jan 4.[67]

–3 [“Several”] prior to Jan 4.

–4 Jan 4.

–Margaret Cronin.

–Robert Cross.

–Lottie Harris.

–James McLaughlin of Scituate (it was thought).

— 2 Providence, Jan 9. Men clearing snow from RR tracks, Brayton Ave. crossing hit by train.[68]

New England Maritime ( 5)

–5 Week of Dec 25-Jan 1. Drownings; northeast gale and snow; four shipwrecks; 5 men lost.[69]

Narrative Information

General

Dec 26: “Chicago, Dec. 26.–The crest of the cold wave east-bound passed Chicago today. The minimum temperature here is eight degrees below zero. Trains as a result of the cold, generally are unable to maintain schedule time.

“The weather remains cold throughout the northwest. Some of the low temperatures reported this morning are: St. Pau. 16 below; Winnipeg, 30 below; LaCrosse, 15 below; Lafayette, 8 below.

“In Western Missouri, Eastern Kansas and Oklahoma the temperature averaged five below with high winds while in Western Kansas the mercury is thirty-six above zero.” (Muscatine Journal, IA. “Cold Wave is Passing Away.” 12-26-1903, p. 1.)

Jan 4: “Washington, D.C., Jan. 4.–All of the United States west of the Rocky Mountains [rest of article makes it clear it was meant to be “east”] is held in the grasp of the storm king. From nearly all of the northern states reports come of the coldest weather of the winter, in some places the record for many years being broken. The weather bureau promises a gradually rising temperature for the next few days but it will remain very cold.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Intense Cold Over Country.” 1-4-1904, p. 4.)

Jan 6: “Washington [DC], Jan. 6.–The weather bureau this morning issued the following:

Temperatures have risen in the Mississippi and Missouri valleys, the lower, lake regions and eastern New York, although it continues unseasonably cold in the last named district. The cold weather continues in the south and middle Atlantic and east gulf states and New England. Zero temperatures are reported this morning from Eastern Pennsylvania, Eastern New York and the interior of New England. In the last named a minimum temperature of 20 degrees below zero was recorded at Concord; N.H.

The eastern area of high pressure has drifted slowly southward and is central this morning, over the middle and south Atlantic coast. A second area of high pressure has moved in from the north Pacific and occupies the plateau regions. A depression of considerable magnitude covers the northwest territories, and is apparently moving eastward.

There has been no precipitation of consequence on the last 24 hours.

The temperature will rise in eastern districts to-night and Thursday. It will also be warmer to-night in the Ohio valley and lower lake regions.”

(Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “The Cold Wave Is Over.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.)

Alabama

Dec 26: “Birmingham, Ala., Dec. 26.–The thermometer today registered 17, the coldest of the winter, and a drop since yesterday of 35 degrees.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Coldest of Winter.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Connecticut

Jan 4: “New Haven, Conn., Jan. 4.–The most severe spell of winter weather in some years in Connecticut is the present cold snap. Around the state this morning the temperature ranged from zero to 23 degrees below zero. The railroad trains were running this morning in all directions but were all late.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Traffic is Impeded.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5: “New Haven, Conn., Jan 5.–This was the coldest morning in the last five years in Connecticut. From midnight until 5 o’clock this morning the official thermometer was 6 below. The lowest in the state is at Danbury, 26 degrees below. Traffic was delayed on account of the difficulty of making steam.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Traffic Delayed.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 6: “New Haven, Jan. 6.–The thermometer at the local weather bureau early this morning again reached 6 below zero, the same point as yesterday. In other parts of the city it was from 10 to 20 below last night. At 8 o’clock the weather bureau thermometer was at 2 below and rising rapidly.

“Hartford, Jan. 6.–The thermometer at 7 o’clock this morning registered from 18 to 20 degrees below zero in various parts of the city.” (Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “The Cold Wave Is Over.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.)

Delaware

Jan 5: “Wilmington, Del., Jan 5.—The cold wave extends over Delaware with practically no variation. The thermometers ranged from 2 to 8 below zero. In this city many large industrial establishments suffered from bursting pipes, and many were compelled to shut down.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Factories Close Down.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Georgia

Dec 26: “Atlanta, Ga., Dec 26.–The minimum temperature here today was 19, a fall of 37 degrees in the last twenty-four hours. An additional fall in temperature is forecasted for tonight, the cold wave reaching to the south Atlantic and gulf states.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Cold Wave at Atlanta.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Illinois

Dec 25: “Chicago, Dec. 25.–A severe snow storm, followed by a cold wave, visited Chicago to-day. The snow commenced to fall at 9 o’clock in the morning and continued into late in the afternoon, the entire fall being estimated by the weather office at three and one-half inches. The storm was at first unaccompanied by wind, but late in the afternoon a gale of forth miles an hour sprung up from the northwest and the mercury fell rapidly. The thermometers stood 15 above during the greater part of the day, and at 10 o’clock it had fallen to four below, with a promise of ten degrees below by daylight. The snow did not cause any trouble until the wind rose, when it commenced to drift badly, and many outlying street car lines were badly crippled. Cold is scheduled to continue through to-morrow, with a high wind to add to the discomfort.

“During the blinding storm this afternoon a Pan-Handle suburban train crashed into the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul train at Fifty-fourth street. James Dooley, a passenger, brakeman, was fatally and four other trainmen were slightly injured.” (Burlington Hawk-Eye, IA. “Death and Ruin On Icy Blasts.” 12-26-1903, p. 1.)

Dec 26: “Chicago, Dec. 26.–With a minimum of 8 degrees below zero, the crest of a cold wave moving eastward, struck Chicago today. Trains in many instances were unable to maintain schedule time. Temperatures close to zero were reported in the west and northwest. Northern Indiana reported 8 below, St. Paul 16 below and Winnipeg 30 below….” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Crest of Cold Wave.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Indiana

Dec 25-26: “Indianapolis, Ind., Dec. 26.–Indiana was in the grasp of the fiercest storm of the winter yesterday. At Washington, the storm broke suddenly, causing a loss of $25,000, which included the demolition of a large five-story factory. The storm was more or less general over the entire state, breaking with particular fury in several of the towns in the south-central part. The snow fall varied from flurries to a depth of six inches at Petersburg, Ind. In nearly every case th snow was accompanied by terrific gales that caused thousands of dollars of damage to buildings, trees, railroad, telegraph and telephone companies. Railway schedules were knocked out by the snow and sort and interurban lines especially suffered a disarrangement of their schedules. Telephone and telegraph wires are down in many parts of the state, and it is impossible to get complete information from the path of the storm. A decided drop in temperature followed in the wake of the storm and Christmas day, which dawned balmy, closed in the grip of frigid weather.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Hoosier State Blizzard-Swept.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Dec 25-26: “Lafayette, Ind., Dec. 26.–From 35 degrees above Friday afternoon the temperature dropped to eight degrees below at seven o’clock Saturday morning, the coldest in two years. The Wabash river was frozen over and there was much damage from the high wind.” (Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7.)

Dec 25-26: “Muncie, Ind., Dec. 26.–Snow which began to fall yesterday turned into a blizzard last night–the severest in years. Pedestrians were scarcely able to see their way.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Blizzard at Muncie.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Iowa

Dec 26: “Burlington, IA., Dec. 26.–A fierce blizzard raged here, accompanied by a drop of thirty degrees in temperature.” (Le Mars Sentinel, IA. “Wind…Cold Weather.” 12-29-1903, p.2.)

Dec 26: “Des Moines, Ia., Dec. 26.–Two degrees below zero was recorded at the weather bureau today…The cold here was accompanied by a disagreeable, raw wind, which made it more intense during the night.” (Muscatine Journal, IA. “Cold Wave…Passing Away.” 12-26-1903, 1)

Dec 26: “At Dubuque, Iowa, the mercury went 14 below and at Davenport a mark of 12 was registered.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Crest of Cold Wave.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Kentucky

Dec 26: “Louisville, Dec. 26.–A gale blowing at the rate of fifty miles an hour struck Louisville at 5 o’clock and within two hours the mercury dropped over twenty degrees. The gale was accompanied by a brief but blinding snowstorm. The ferryboat City of Jeffersonville, plying between Louisville and Jeffersonville, became unmanageable and after an exciting trip, lasting two hours, was blown to the bank at the eastern end of the city. The passengers were gotten safely ashore and the boat made fast for the night with slight damage. The storm destroyed many chimneys, show windows, etc.” (Le Mars Sentinel, IA. “Wind…Cold Weather.” 12-29-1903, 2.)

Maine

Jan 2-3?: “Cundys Harbor. The severe cold wave which reached us last week seems loath to leave, the thermometer ranging from 4 to 14 degrees below zero. At no time for five days was it up to zero. More salt water ice has formed in the past few days than for 15 years. Monday from this harbor no water could be seen either in Quahaug [Quahog?] bay or the New Meadows river, the latter frozen to Wood island. Quahaug bay is frozen below Card’s cove. Tuesday people crossed the ice from Pinkham’s Point to Bethel Point. Three schooners, besides many smaller boats, are frozen in the ice. Sunday quite a number of our men who were obliged to brave the wind and storm to try and break ice to save them from damage, were quite badly frost bitten. C. W. Leavitt’s boat sunk at her mooring Saturday night [Jan 2?].[70]

“The high winds of Sunday [Jan 3] drifted snow so badly that there is hardly enough for sleighing, there being many places of bare ground.” (Bath Independent and Enterprise, ME. “Neighborhood News.” 1-9-1904, p. 6.)

Jan 3: “Burnham, Me., Jan. 3.–As the result of a collision between a snow plow with a freight train which was standing on the main line at the Maine Central station, early today, the engine which was driving the plow, and car attached to the latter were thrown from the track and badly damaged. Engineer Edward, Coburn, Conductor Charles Buck, Brakemen Goodale [unclear] and Stinson, of the snow plow train, were severely bruised and Fireman James Coyne sustained a deep scalp would and an injury to one knee. The crew of the freight train escaped without injury. It is believed the accident was caused by the blinding snow storm, which prevented the engineer of the special train from discovering his position in time to avoid the collision.” (Daily Kennebec Journal, Augusta, ME. “Five Maine Central Men Shaken Up at Burnham.” 1-4-1904, p. 1.)

Jan 3: “Dexter, Me., Jan. 3.–Saturday was the coldest of the season in central Maine, the mercury not being above zero at any time and dropping to 10 below at night, when a severe snow and wind set in. Reports from the northern part of the State say that thermometers there registered 35 below zero early in the day.” (Daily Kennebec Journal, Augusta, ME. “Away Below Zero at Dexter..” 1-4-1904, p. 1.)

Jan 4: “Brunswick, Me, Jan 4–All except five of the large number of Maine Central railroad and Western Union wires passing through here were snapped off during the night by the intense cold. The thermometer registered 28 below at Dawn. The Kennebec river at Bath was frozen completely over, so that the Maine Central ferryboat connecting Bath and Woolwich wass unable to run until the ice was broken up, suspending the through train service between Bath and Rockland an hour. It is an unusual occurrence for the Kennebec to freeze at that point. All the schools were closed because of the inability to heat the buildings. Work on the Androscoggin ice fields was suspended, five of the crew of 15 men having their faces badly frozen. The mercury registered 32 degrees below at Lisbon Falls.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Snapped Telegraph Wires.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Portland, Me, Jan 4–The most severe weather in Maine this winter was experienced today, causing much discomfort, but so far as reported at noon no fatalities. Morning trains were delayed nearly an hour. School sessions in many cities and towns were suspended for the day owing to the impossibility of sufficiently heating the buildings and the small attendance. The long continuous cold weather is unusual, even for this state. The lowest record, 32 below at dawn, was reported from Lisbon Falls, Pejepscot, Mechanic Falls and South Rumford. Eastport reported 14 below. Skowhegan 25 below, Canaan 25 below, Athens 27 below and Brighton 29 below….Much inconvenience was occasioned by the freezing of water pipes in all sections.

“In this city the upper harbor was completely frozen over, as were various sounds along the coast. The upper harbor has not been so thoroughly frozen for 25 years, it is said. The lowest reading of the thermometer was 21 below. A number of schooners frozen into their docks will have much difficulty in getting away until the wind shifts or warmer weather arrives….Merriconeag Sound was frozen solid for a distance of four miles.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Portland Harbor Freezes.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Rumford Falls, Me, Jan 4–Except two years ago when the mercury registered 36 below, the weather was said to be the coldest ever known in this section. It was 23 below in the business center, 30 below at South Rumford and 32 below at Mechanic Falls. All school sessions were suspended for the day.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Had to Close Schools.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Maryland

Dec 27: “Allegany County….Cumberland, Md., Dec 27….A heavy snow has fallen at Frostburg, which at many points has drifted over fence tops. The mercury continues to hover about zero.” (Baltimore Sun, MD. “Allegheny County.” 12-28-1903, p. 10.)

Jan 5-6: “Hagerstown, Md., Jan. 6.–Weather records for this vicinity for 20 years have been broken. Between midnight and six o’clock Tuesday morning [Jan 5] was the coldest weather since the winter of 1880, when the mercury reached 26 degrees below zero, was experienced. Sharpsburg was the coldest place heard from, the thermometer registering 20 below zero. At Hanco*ck it was 16 below, and Williamsport and several other places reported 14 below. In this city thermometers ranged from ten to 15 below the zero mark.” (Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts Are Very Severe.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont

Dec 26: “Boston, Dec. 26.–A heavy northeast snow storm began here today. The strong wind, driving in from the sea contributed to conditions resembling a blizzard.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Snow Falls on Boston.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Dec 26, Boston: “The weather bureau predicts that it will be much colder tonight, that a cold wave is coming, and that all day Sunday [27th] the frost will have New England in its clutches, with high west and northwest winds.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Storm is Heavy. Will Be Short.” 12-26-1903, p. 9.)

Dec 26, Woods Hole: “Woods Hole, Dec 26–A blinding snowstorm and a brisk westerly gale struck these shores at noon today and have steadily increased in fury, compelling all shipping to seek refuge at the anchorage grounds in the sound. The schooners which were driven back to the harbor at Vineyard Haven when the gale struck them yesterday started out this morning, bound around the cape, and there are fears that some of them got so far along up over the shoals that they will have a hard time groping their way to an anchorage in the thick snowstorm. It has shut in so thick in the sound off here that it is impossible to see more than a few hundred yards from shore. When last seen the vessels at anchor off Nobska point were pulling and tugging at their anchors and pitching and plunging in the heavy sea which the gale kicked up….” (Boston Globe, MA. “Brisk Gale at Woods Hole.” 12-26-1903, p. 9.)

Jan 2-3, Boston: “Ten inches of snow, a north wind which blew at the rate of 34 miles an hour and one degree below zero is the official weather bureau report of the storm which raged in Boston and New England Saturday night [Jan 2] and Sunday morning up to 10:25, when the wind abated and shifted to the west and the snow ceased falling. Reports do not always tell the whole story. There may have been only 10 inches of snow, but it looked more like 10 feet to most people yesterday morning, especially to those whose houses stood in the way of the 34-mile-an-hour breeze which accompanied the snow. Then the snow was so fine that there was no crevice too small for it to get through and it felt as if the mercury was a good 20 below zero instead of one below when it struck you full in the face….

“The predictions for today are that it will be clear and cold; the thermometer will probably not rise above 15 above zero during the day; the wind will remain west; there will be no snow and Tuesday it will be much milder and the weather as far as can be determined will be fair. The wind will remain west or close to that point for the next two days.” (Boston Globe, MA. “City Digging Itself Out.” 1-4-1904, p. 1.)

Jan 3: “Attleboro, Jan 4–Attleboro was visited yesterday [Jan 3] by one of the coldest and severest storms it has experienced in recent years. The railroad and street railways suffered the most. The country roads were practically impassable in many places, the drifts being from two to six feet deep. The thermometers registered lat last evening from 15 to 25 degrees below zero, the coldest ever known in Attleboro.” (Boston Globe. “Coldest Ever In Attleboro.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Boston, Mass., Jan. 4.–Boston is today digging herself out from under the twelve inches of snow which, blown by a north wind at the rate of 34 miles an hour. In a zero temperature, was piled in drifts all Saturday night [Jan 2], and up to noon yesterday. The storm raged all over New England and was the worst since the blizzard of 1898 [1899?]. Railroad and trolley traffic is affected, trains being from one to ten hours late and trolley lines in many cases being completely tied up. The temperature this morning at 9 o’clock was 4 degrees below zero.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Intense Cold Over Country.” 1-4-1904, p. 4.)

Jan 4: “Hull, Jan 4–Hull is still snowbound. No trains are running, and there is no communication between here and the outside world except by telephone. All telegraph wires are down or out of order. No newspapers or mail have reached here since Saturday morning [Jan 2]. The weather is very cold, and the snow is drifted throughout the town. Only one train has run to the South shore this morning, and none whatever to Hull.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Hull Buried in Snow.” 1-4-19004, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Lowell, Jan 4–At 2 a.m. today the thermometer record at the pumping station on Pawtucket boulevard was 22 degrees below zero and at daylight 10 degrees below. At 12:30 p.m. today in the business center it was zero, the coldest for years….” (Boston Globe. “Lowell Thawing Out.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4-6: “Boston, Jan. 6.–Reports from all over New England indicated more intense cold than on Monday [Jan 4]. At Salem, Mass., the harbor was frozen over for the first time in 15 years. From New Hampshire, Keene reported 32 degrees below zero, the lowest in 15 years while at other places the mercury fell to 43 below. Woods River Junction, R.I., reported the lowest temperature ever known, 36 below zero. Trains everywhere were from two to six hours late Tuesday [Jan 4]….Thermometers in Orange, Mass., burst Monday night at 50 below zero. Athol and Tully, Mass., bulbs went down to 42 and 44 below. William Pattison was frozen to death in the snow at North Webster.” (Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts Are Very Severe.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5: “Boston, Jan. 5.–Reports from all over New England indicated intense cold today. At Salem, Mass., the harbor was frozen over for the first time in fifteen years. From New Hampshire, Keen reported 32 degrees below zero, the lowest in fifteen years, while at other places the mercury fell to 45 below. Woods River Junction, R.I. reports the lowest temperature ever known, 36 below. Thermometers in Orange, Mass., burst last night at fifty below zero. At Tulley, Mass., bulbs went down to 44 below. William Pattison was frozen to death in the snow at North Webster last night. For the first time in ten years the eastern and western passages of Narragansett bay are closed by ice. The ice has choked up the wharves along the water front at Newport, R.I., and soldiers walked today from Fort Grable on Dutch island to the west ferry over the ice. Thermometers in different sections of Rutland, Vt., registered from 40 to 44 below zero today. The Rutland public schools were closed owing to the cold weather.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Thermometers Burst. Mercury at Orange, Mass., Reached 50 Below.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Michigan

Jan 4 report: “Detroit, Mich., Jan. 4.–With the mercury two below zero and the Detroit river frozen over solid so that pedestrians are walking to and from Canada, this city is experiencing a record breaking winter. The severe cold extends throughout the state. Three boys, fishermen’s sons, were frozen to death at Bayport while trying to find their father’s fish shanties on the bay during a blinding snow storm.”[71] (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Boys Frozen to Death.” 1-4-1904, p2.)

Minnesota

Dec 26: “St. Paul, Minn., Dec. 26.–Sixteen degrees below zero was the record at the local weather bureau Saturday….The cold here was accompanied by a stinging wind which made it more intense during the night.” (Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7.)

Missouri

Dec 26: “Kansas City, Mo., Dec. 26.–The temperature in western Missouri Saturday [26th] averaged five degrees above zero with a strong wind blowing. In Kansas and Oklahoma mild weather prevailed, the temperature ranging from five degrees above zero in eastern Kansas to 36 above at the Colorado state line.” (Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7.)

Dec 26: “St. Louis, Dec 26.–Almost zero weather prevails in St. Louis and vicinity. The temperature fell thirty-one degrees in four hours. This fall in temperature was accompanied by a high wind, which gained a velocity of forty miles an hour, doing considerable damage in various parts of the city. During the height of the blow the east and north walls of the partially completed Buckingham hotel, at West Pine and King’s Highway were blown down, causing damage estimated at $75,000. On the World’s fair grounds nearby considerable damage resulted from the wind, which blew down some temporary structures.” (Le Mars Sentinel, IA. “Wind and Cold Weather.” 12-29-1903, p. 2.)

New England

Jan 3: “With the mercury hovering around the zero mark in Boston, Mass., and reaching an extreme of 35 degrees below in northern Maine; with a foot of snow piling up at exposed points in huge drifts that delayed railroad trains, caused the abandonment of street railway schedules, and, in many cases, interfered with the street lighting systems, New England slowly emerged Sunday [Jan 3] from the clutches of the wildest blizzard that has swept that part of the country since the memorable storm of November, 1898. The gale, accompanied by a blinding fall of snow, swept the coast from Newport, R.I., to Eastport, Me., until noon when it moved eastward and at night was raging with almost unprecedented fury over the maritime provinces. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia suffered the most.

“Double patrols of life savers watched the coast Sunday night. Only one shipwreck is known to have occurred, that of the schooner Belle J. Neal, on Allerto [?] bar; but later a woman’s body was washed ashore at Nantasket [Hull, MA] and it is feared that another vessel went down during the storm.

“Five deaths from exposure have occurred in Boston….” (Carroll Sentinel, IA. “Storm Sweeps East.” 1-5-1904, p. 6.)

New Hampshire

Jan 3: “Portsmouth, N.H., Jan. 3–Today was the coldest of the season, the thermometer in the city ranging from 12 to 15 below zero and in the neighboring towns from 15 to 20 below zero.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Portsmouth’s Coldest Day.” 1-4-1904, p. 3.)

Jan 4: “Concord, N.H., Jan 4–Thermometers in this city registered at 32 below zero early today. Center Barnstead and Sutton, nearby towns, reported 35 below.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Two N H Towns 35 Below.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Lancaster, N H, Jan 4–This locality has been in the grasp of one of the coldest waves of low temperature of which there is any record, during the past two days. The mercury held below zero all day Sunday [Jan 3], and at the approach of evening the mercury lowered rapidly, reaching as low as 33 degrees below zero at several points in the river valleys. After midnight there was a milder temperature by from 10 to 20 degrees, but today the thermometer still shows below zero, the record being 10 below at 10:30.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Cold Wave at Lancaster.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Manchester, N.H., Jan 4–The coldest weather recorded in this city and vicinity in 23 years is reported for the night and this morning. At the state industrial school, situated in the northern section of the city, and at Greggs Falls on the Piscataquog river, the mercury registered 33 degrees below zero. At Amoskeag Falls, where the temperature is hourly taken, it was 26 below, and at 9:15 this morning the temperature had fallen from 8 degrees below zero, at 6, to 10 below. Throughout the Merrimac and Piscataquog river valleys the temperature reached lower points than on higher ground.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Down to 33 Below.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

New Jersey

Jan 2, New Brunswick: “The heaviest snow of the season fell today and the storm this afternoon threatened to reach very large proportions. Trolley officials said today that the snow had not interfered with the running of the cars.” (Daily Times, New Brunswick, NJ. “Heavy Snow Storm.” 1-2-1904, p. 1.)

Jan 2-4, New Brunswick: “The cold wave which the weather man predicted for yesterday arrived as per schedule and the coldest day of the Winter followed, the temperature being around the zero point all day. To-day the cold weather was still very much felt. The lowest point reached by the thermometer was three degrees above zero. With the cold wave was a fall of five inches of snow. The storm interfered with trolley traffic Saturday [Jan 2] and to-day. All of the Pennsylvania trains were delayed mostly to-day from and to New York owing to the engineers having difficulty with the pipes on the engine, some of which froze up. The cold weather will continue until to-morrow, when the temperature will commence to rise.” (Daily Times, New Brunswick, NJ. “Bitter Cold Wave Arrives on Time.” 1-4-1904, p. 1.)

Jan 6: “In Atlantic City, N.J., a minimum temperature of 6 degrees below zero was recorded. At Cape May zero weather prevailed, and throughout Delaware the temperature fell to 6 and 8 degrees below zero.” (The News, Frederick, MD. “Cold Records Broken.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.)

New York

Dec 26: “New York, Dec. 26.–A heavy fall of snow, accompanied by high wind, began here today. So thick were the snow and the clouds that during the morning darkness almost like that of night prevailed in the downtown streets. The snow, wet and heavy, at first melted as fast as it fell, but later the temperature dropped and the storm took on the semblance of a blizzard. The darkness lasted nearly an hour, after which the storm lessened considerably in severity, although the snow continued to fall. A heavy snowstorm accompanied at many places prevailed throughout the state. During the dark period in this city many ferryboats went astray, their captains having lost their bearings, and the harbor resounded with the whistles of tugs and other steam craft that had become enveloped in the darkness and blinding snow. Several liners on their way from quarantine to their piers had to lay to until the darkness lifted. Later in the day the snow stopped, but the mercury dropped rapidly, going down 15 degrees, from 34 to 19, in three hours. A sharp wind intensified the cold which the weather bureau officials said would probably reach the lowest thus far for the winter.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Blizzard Hits New York.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Dec 27: “Auburn, Dec. 27.–The city has been in the grasp of a howling blizzard all day. The thermometer registered at zero early this morning and the mercury has not risen but a few degrees during the day. A fierce northwest wind has whirled the snow which fell at intervals into fantastic piles, which were pretty to look at, but disagreeable to tramp through. Street car traffic has been greatly impeded by the storm despite the fact that the snow plow has been run almost constantly over the tracks.” (Post-Standard, Syracuse, NY. “In the Grasp of a Blizzard,” 12-28-1903, p. 10.)

Jan 2-3, New York City: “New York, Jan 3–Clear skies and biting cold succeeded the snow storm which raged all yesterday and last night, resulting in a total fall of from 8 to 10 inches, the heaviest of the season. While there was little interruption of street car traffic today, owing to the constant use of snowplows during the continuance of the storm, the service on railroads entering the city was badly crippled….

“At Albany the coldest weather of the season has followed last night’s storm, with its six inches of snow. The temperature there tonight reached 10 below zero….

“Buffalo reports…There was another snowstorm today, but it was insignificant compared with the blizzard of Saturday….

“The ice jam on the American side above Niagara Falls continues to pile up. Thousands of persons went there today to witness the unusual sight of a practically dry riverbed between the American shore and Goat island and also in the channel between the Three Sister islands. A tremendous volume of water is being forced over the Horseshoe falls. The jam is from 25 to 35 feet high and extends out into the river about 1000 feet.

“The Mohawk valley is suffering from one of the worst storms in years. A foot of snow fell yesterday, and the thermometer registered 15 below zero in Fonda tonight….

“Saratoga is experiencing one of the most severe winters it ha suffered for a quarter of a century. Cold weather made its appearance early in November and has continued unbroken ever since. Cold waves and snow storms have followed in rapid succession for the past seven weeks. Twelve inches of additional snow is the result of the blizzard that howled last night and early this morning, when the cold wave dipped to 8 below zero. The mercury recorded 6 below at 9 o’clock this morning and averaged from 4 to 6 below during the noon and early afternoon hours, since which time it has been gradually growing colder. The heavy drifts retarded the movement of trains.” (Boston Daily Globe, MA. “New York Feels Effect of the Storm.” 10401904, p. 3.)

Jan 3-4: “Glens Falls, N.Y., Jan 4.–Following the heavy snow storm the mercury fell 20 degrees last night and this morning is the coldest day of the winter, the thermometer registering 25 degrees below zero. In the Adirondacks there is much snow and bitter cold, thermometers registering as low as 40 degrees below zero.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Weather in New York.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 4: “Gloversville, N.Y., Jan 4.–The mercury has not been above the zero mark in Fulton county during the past three days. At 7 o’clock this morning the records at various points were: Gloversville, 26 below zero; Johnstown, 23 below; Northville, 23 below; Broadalbin, 22 below; Mayfield, 20 degrees below…” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Twenty-Six Below Zero.” 1-4-1904, 2.)

Jan 4: “Little Falls, N.Y., Jan. 4.–Last night was the coldest in many years in Herkimer county. The thermometer registered 25 to 30 degrees below zero.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Intense Cold Over Country.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5, Albany: “Albany, N.Y., Jan. 5.–Twenty-five degrees below zero, the lowest temperature in twenty-eight years, was recorded here today.” (Salt Lake Herald. “Mercury…” 1-6-1904, p.2.)

Jan 5, Amsterdam: “Amsterdam, N.Y., Jan. 5.–The average temperature in this city today was 25 and 29 degrees below zero.” (Salt Lake Herald. “Mercury Way Down.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5, Fishkill Landing: “Fishkill Landing, N.Y., Jan 5.–The thermometer here this morning registered 36 below zero.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Intensely Cold.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5, NYC: “New York, Jan. 5.–When the government thermometer reached four below zero at 5 o’clock this morning all local January cold records since 1875, when six below was registered, were beaten. Thermometers in various outlying districts went several degrees lower, and in the suburbs from eight to twelve degrees below zero was reached. At 9 o’clock the official thermometer had gone up to two below, and the absence of wind was some relief. The intense cold interfered considerably with all outdoor occupations and delayed all regular and suburban trains from a few minutes to several hours. The effects of the heavy snow had been overcome, but it was difficult to keep up steam, and many local trains had to be abandoned on account of disabled engines.

“Traffic on land and water was in serious trouble. Trans-Atlantic liners arrived looking like spectre ships. Both the East and North rivers were barely navigable, while the Harlem river, for the first time in eight years, was impassable above MacCombs’ dam bridge at 155th street. Ferry boats and tugs were swept out of their courses by the drift ice, and every ounce of power in them required to reach their slips. The boats which land at the Battery had to turn battering rams to part the ice in their slips. Mails from the west and east were from six to ten hours late. Snow was not to blame for this so much as the inability of the locomotives to keep steam up under the great outside cold pressures. The severe weather was the cause of an unusual number of fires. Between 1:30 and 8:30 a.m. thirteen alarms were sent in. All were for small fires.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Mercury Seeks Bottom of Bulb.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5, Troy: “Troy, N.Y., Jan 5.–In exposed places in the city and suburbs it was 32 below, and in other places 2 below, the coldest in the history of Troy.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. 1-6-1904, 2.)

Jan 5-6: “New York, Jan. 6.–Dispatches from every section of the state tell of record breaking cold weather. At a number of points within 20 miles of this city the thermometers marked 20 to 30 degrees below zero at dawn Tuesday [Jan 5]. The coldest weather in many years was reported throughout the Adirondack region Monday night. At Saranac Lake it was 40 below and Lake Placid 41 below. For the past four nights the thermometer has registered not less than 12 below anywhere, and as low as 41 below at some points in northern New York. An average temperature of 30 degrees below zero prevailed throughout the central and western part of the state.” (Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts Are Very Severe.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 6, Albany: “Albany, N.Y., Jan. 6.–Twenty-five degrees below zero, the lowest temperature in twenty-eight years was recorded here.” (Evening Journal, Washington, IA. “Polar Cold in East.” 1-6-1904, p. 8.)

Jan 6, NYC: “New York, Jan. 6.–When the government thermometer reached 4 below at 5 o’clock in the morning all local January cold records since 1875, when 6 below was registered, were beaten. Thermometers in various outlying parts of the city went several degrees lower, and in the suburbs from 8 to 12 below zero was reported. At 9 o’clock, the official thermometer had gone up to 2 below and the absence of wind was some relief. The intense cold interfered considerably with all out-door occupations and delayed all regular and suburban trains from a few minutes to several hours. The effects of the heavy snow had been overcome, but it was difficult to keep steam and many local trains had to be abandoned on account of disabled engines….” (Evening Journal, Washington, IA. “Polar Cold in East.” 1-6-1904, p. 8.)

Jan 6, NYC: “New York, Jan. 6.–The weather here has moderated somewhat. The distress disclosed by the cold snap has set city officials and charitable organizations at work extending relief. The courts have refused to consider disposess [dispossessed?] cases until the cold wave passes away. Five additional deaths, due directly to the cold occurred during the 24 hours ending at midnight last night. The harbor is almost ice bound for the first time in years. Navigation is attended with difficulty and only large and stoutly built boats are attempting it..” (Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “The Cold Wave Is Over.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.)

Ohio

Dec 25-26: “Cleveland, Ohio, Dec. 26.–The first real blizzard of the winter is reported from various points in Ohio to have prevailed last night and today. In this city the wind reached a velocity of fifty-two miles an hour, while a heavy, blinding snow fell to the depth of several inches. During the past twenty-four hours the weather bureau thermometer has dropped 22 degrees and now registers near the zero mark. Railway traffic is delayed owing to the heavy storm. The weather bureau predicts a still lower temperature for tonight.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel. “Ohio Swept by Storm.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

Jan 4: “Zanesville, O., Jan. 4.–It is almost as cold here this morning as on the morning of February 10, 1899, when all records for cold weather in Ohio were shattered. Thermometers this morning show a reading of from 20 to 30 below zero. On very low ground it is even lower. It is believed that all fruit will be killed. Stock is reported to be suffering severely.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Touched Record In Ohio.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.)

Pennsylvania

Dec 26: “Altoona, PA., Dec. 26.–This city is at present in the throes of a terrific blizzard and the mercury has dropped five degrees below zero. Snow fell heavily last night and this morning, covering this entire section to a depth of ten inches….

“Pottsville, PA., Dec. 26.–A howling blizzard prevailed here to-day, tying up trolley traffic for a time. Early this morning the wind was so high as to put out the street lights in the suburbs. The temperature to-night is close to the zero point.

“Scranton, Pa., Dec. 26.–Scranton has been enjoying excellent sleighing today, owing to the heavy fall of snow during the night.”

“Stroudsburg, Pa., Dec. 26.–A blizzard struck this county to-day. There was a heavy wind. On the Pocono Mountains about six inches of snow fell, and has drifted considerably. At Tobyhanna ten-inch ice is being harvested….” (Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Blizzard Whirls in Poconos.” 12-27-1903, p. 2.)

Dec 26-27, Indiana [PA]: “The coldest day of the winter was Saturday [Dec 26] and during the night the mercury reached zero in Indiana. In Green township the lowest point recorded was 10 below, but Canoe [township] has not yet been heard from and the returns from this district are being anxiously awaited. Most of the local churches held but one service Sunday, although the weather moderated considerably during the day. The entire county was in the grasp of a fierce blizzard Saturday and Sunday and many of the country roads had to be dug out on account of the large drifts, the church attendance in rural districts being considerably diminished on this account….” (Indiana Weekly Messenger, PA. “Thermometer Touches Bottom.” 12-30-1903, p1.)

Jan 2: “Allentown, PA., Jan. 2.–A blizzard is raging here to-night. During the day fully 12 inches of snow fell, while the wind is blowing in all directions….

“Norristown, Pa., Jan. 2.–A blustering blizzard swept this city and surroundings to-day, depositing snow to the depth of eight inches. Suburban trolley traffic was greatly interfered with, and to-night scarcely a wheel is turning on the network of trolley lines centering here. The mercury lingers a few degrees from the zero mark. Business is at a standstill….

“Pottsville, Pa., Jan. 2.–A severe snow storm raged here all day and shows no indication of abating to-night. It has tied up railway traffic and hampered business. It is feared the heavy snow fall will make a general resumption of work at the collieries next Monday impossible….

“South Bethlehem, Pa., Jan. 2–A blizzard that bids fair to surpass the memorable snow storm of 1888 rages in the Lehigh Valley to-night. With it snowing and blowing, the mercury tonight dropped to zero. In Bethlehem, where the Easton and New Jersey and Bangor, Pan Argyl and Nazareth trolley roads connect with the Philadelphia, Slatington and Reading lines, through Allentown, scarcely a car is moving….

“Williamsport, Pa., Jan. 2.–A severe snow storm, accompanied by a high wind and very cold weather, has had this part of the State in its grasp all day. To-night trolleys are tied up and steam roads severely handicapped. Country roads are drifted and some impassable….” (Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “With Blizzard Snow King Lashes State; Trolley Lines Tied Up; Steam Cars Struggle.” 1-3-1904, p. 3.)

Jan 3: “Allentown, Pa., Jan. 3.–As a result of yesterday’s blizzard, the roads in Lehigh county are badly drifted, some being entirely closed for miles. On some of the trolley lines traffic had not been resumed to-night….

“Corry, Pa., Jan. 3.–The blizzard has ceased, but th mercury still hovers below zero to-night. Early this morning the thermometer registered fifteen below zero….

“Pottsville, Pa., Jan. 3.–As the result of yesterday’s blizzard there are snow drifts at many points four and five feet deep. The railroad sidings into some of the collieries are badly blocked, which will greatly hamper the movement of coal trains…Four degrees below zero, the coldest of the year, was recorded to-day….

“Reading, Pa., Jan. 3.–This ahs been the coldest day of the winter. From midnight last night until 9 o’clock this morning the thermometers in sheltered places registered zero, while at exposed points the figures were from 2 to 6 below….

“Stroudsburg, Pa., Jan 3.–Yesterday’s blizzard, one of the worst experienced in this county for years, was followed to-day by extreme cold weather. At Mount Pocono, Tobyhanna and other points on the Pocono Mountains it was 10 degrees below zero….

“Susquehanna, Pa., Jan. 3.–Last night was the coldest of the season, the thermometer registering from 8 to 12 degrees below zero. Six inches of snow fell….

“York, Pa., Jan. 3.–Winter’s coldest wave has struck this city and all York is shivering. Just before daylight this morning the temperature was three degrees above zero….” (Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “In Icy-Fingered Grip of Whirling Blizzard.” 1-4-1904, p. 3.)

Jan 5: “Philadelphia, Jan. 5.–Official figures show this to be the coldest January day this city has experienced since 1875. At 7 o’clock this morning the weather bureau thermometer registered two degrees below zero, while in the suburbs the mercury ranged from four to ten below. The Delaware river below this city is frozen over from shore to shore for the first time in years, interfering seriously with the movement of shipping. In the mountain districts and coal regions the thermometer ranged from six to twenty-five degrees below zero, and coal mining has been seriously interfered with, many mines being unable to operate.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Coldest Since 1875. Delaware River Frozen Over…” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Jan 5: “Philadelphia, Jan 6.–Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware experienced the coldest weather in years Tuesday [Jan 5]. In many places thermometers registering a lower temperature than at any time since 1875. In this city the temperature was minus two at seven a.m., after which it grew slowly warmer, and at eight p.m. 14 degrees above zero were registered at the weather bureau. Bitterly cold weather prevailed in the interior of Pennsylvania during the early hours of the day. At Scranton and Wilkesbarre, which lie in valleys, the official thermometers registered respectively 16 and 13 degrees below zero, while at Eaglesmere [Eagles Mere?], on the crest of the Allegheny mountains, the record was 17 below. At Harrisburg the minimum temperature was five below; Lancaster, one below; New York, 18 below; Williamsport, 17 below; Altoona, 19 below; Johnstown, 15 below; Bellefonte, 26 below; Mauch Chunk, 28 below. In some of the mountain regions temperature as low as 36 degrees below zero was recorded.

Frozen from Shore to Shore.

“The Delaware river below this city [Philadelphia] is frozen from shore to shore for the first time in years, interfering seriously with the movement of shipping. Railroads and industrial establishments all over the state were more or less hampered by the severity of the weather. In Philadelphia all through trains were as much as four hours late and the suburban schedules of the railroads were tangled all day. Mining operations, particularly throughout the anthracite regions, were also seriously affected, many collieries having to shut down because of the freezing up of pipes and machinery.” (Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts…Severe.” 1-6-1904, 2.)

Jan 5, Wilkes-Barre: “Wilkesbarre, Pa., Jan. 5.–The temperature today is the severest in many years in this section of the state. At Glen Summit the thermometer was 28 below zero, at Mountain Top, 29, while in this city it registered as los as 14 below. Coal mining is seriously hampered and while the demand for coal is great, many companies have been unable for a week to make deliveries.” (Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Twenty-nine Below.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Rhode Island

Dec 26: “Newport, R.I., Dec. 26–A heavy northeast snow squall struck Newport at noon today. The barometer fell rapidly to a low point, indicating that the storm center was off here. The wind increased in velocity to 30 miles within half an hour. Heavy seas are running outside, and all shipping has been suspended.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Severe Gale at Scituate.” 12-26-1903, p. 9.)

Dec 26: “Providence, Dec. 26–A snowstorm of uncommon severity, accompanied by a strong gusty wind, visited this section today, and after an hour’s blinding squall, changed into a more gentle though steady downfall. The temperature was not very low, though it was cold enough to ensure quite a considerable depth of snow in the outlying districts.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Storm of Uncommon Severity.” 12-26-1903, p. 9.)

Dec 29: “Newport, R.I., Dec. 29.–Nearly every variety of weather was experienced here today, snow, hail and rain falling, while a thunderstorm, accompanied by blinding lightning, caused terror to many who recalled the disastrous storm of 1894. At 8 o’clock in the morning the mercury was 8° above zero. At 6 o’clock in the evening it registered 34°. (Baltimore Sun. “Thunderstorm at Newport.” 12-30-1903, p. 7.)

Jan 2-3: “Newport, R.I., Jan. 3–The storm which raged here last night and part of today was, according to Capt. Chauncey Kenyon of the Brenton Reef lifesaving station, the severest in his 28 years of experience. The velocity of the wind reached 75 miles an hour with a prevailing temperature of 5° above zero….The authorities today sent out snow plows drawn by oxen, accompanied by large numbers of men armed with shovels to open up the roads. Those in Bellevue Ave. district, where many costly villas are located, however, were practically impassable.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Worst in 28 Years.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.)

Vermont

Jan 4: “Burlington, Vt., Jan 4–The lowest temperature recorded here today was 24 below zero….” (Boston Globe, MA. “Icy Touch At Burlington.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Montpelier, Vt., Jan 4–Arctic weather prevails in central Vermont. The temperature here this morning is 20 below zero, with the wind blowing from the northwest. At Barre it was 28 below. The wind and intense cold made last night the worst of the winter….” (Boston Globe, MA. “Where It’s 28 Below.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Providence, Jan 4–With the mercury ranging from 5° to 26° below zero in this state, there is great difficulty in keeping the land and waterways open for transportation. Many upcountry roads cannot be opened until the cold wave is broke. Narragansett bay has not in a dozen years been so hampered with ice fields, and the situation is now considered a serious one, for there are a number of vessels in the ice, and some have been carried ashore in the ice pack. Towboats went down the bay today and tonight, and they will make an effort to rescue some of the schooners in the vicinity of Dutch island, where there is one solid pack of ice from 10 inches to 4 feet thick.

“Several deaths have been due to the severe cold and exposure to the blizzard. There were four more today, Margaret Cronin, Lottie Harris, Robert Cross and a man supposed to be James McLaughlin of Scituate. Numerous cases of persons being partially frozen are being reported, but the most severe is that of William Herber, and it is said at the hospital that he cannot recover.

“Steamship Essex arrived this afternoon after a hard struggle with the gale at sea. She had decks washed and there were several tons of ice on her sides….At Block island it blew a 50-mile gale today. The steamer New Shoreham is stormbound there.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Four Deaths Due To Cold.” 1-5-1904, p. 3.)

Jan 6: “Rutland, Vt., Jan. 6.–Thermometers in different sections of the city registered from 40 to 44 degrees below zero Tuesday [Jan 5]. The public schools were closed owing to the cold weather.” (Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts Are Very Severe.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.)

Virginia

Jan 4: “Newport News, Va., Jan 4–The coal barges New Jersey and Liberty, both heavily laden, and bound from Newport News to Providence [RI], broke away from the towing steamer Navigator early Sunday morning [Jan 3] off Hogg island,[72] and no trace of either of the vessels has been found. It is believed both went to the bottom during the blizzard which swept this entire section, and that as a result nine lost their lives. The Navigator is still at sea searching for the missing barges…” (Boston Globe, MA. “Nine Probably Dead.” 1-5-1904, p. 3.)

Jan 4: “Norfolk, Va., Jan. 4.–The severest weather of the winter continues throughout Virginia and North Carolina, with Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds in Eastern Carolina frozen over and vessels tied up. There is much suffering on the coast.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Intense Cold Over Country.” 1-4-1904, p. 4.)

West Virginia

Jan 3: “The snow at Thomas, W.Va., on the West Virginia Central railroad, is from 8 to 10 inches deep. At Elk Garden the thermometer registered 3° below zero.” (Baltimore Sun, MD. “Snow Covered With Cards.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.)

Jan 4: “Wheeling, W.Va., Jan. 4.–To meet the conditions caused by the cold weather, the Fairmount Coal Co., and subsidiary concerns today cut the coal prices twenty-five cents a ton to private consumers, and 15 cents to retailers and jobbers. The company will sell coal to any private consumer now at the new rates. The cut will go far towards relieving the distress. At Roneys Point it was 20 degrees below zero last night.” (Fort Wayne News, IN. “Coal Barons Thaw Out.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.)

Wisconsin

Dec 26: “La Crosse, Wis., Dec. 26.–A drop in temperature of 30 degrees in 24 hours occurred here and Saturday morning [26th] the government thermometer registered 15 below. A penetrating north wind made it the most disagreeable day of the winter and charitable organizations were besieged by pleas for fuel from poor people.” (Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7.)

Sources

Altoona Mirror, PA. 1-5-1904, p. 4, column 2. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/altoona-mirror-jan-05-1904-p-4/

Atlanta Constitution, GA. “Negro Frozen Near Rome.” 12-29-1904, p. 12. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/atlanta-constitution-dec-29-1903-p-12/

Atlanta Constitution. “Two Men Frozen To Death.” 12-29-1904, p. 9. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/atlanta-constitution-dec-29-1903-p-9/

Baltimore Sun, MD. “Allegheny County.” 12-28-1903, p. 10. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/baltimore-sun-dec-28-1903-p-10/

Baltimore Sun, MD. “Snow Covered With Cards.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/baltimore-sun-jan-04-1904-p-7/

Baltimore Sun, MD. “Thunderstorm at Newport.” 12-30-1903, p. 7. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/baltimore-sun-dec-30-1903-p-7/

Bath Independent and Enterprise, ME. “Neighborhood News.” 1-9-1904, p. 6. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/bath-independent-and-enterprise-jan-09-1904-p-6/

Boston Globe, MA. “Body Found In Drift.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Boston Globe, MA. “Brisk Gale at Woods Hole.” 12-26-1903, p. 9. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-dec-26-1903-p-22/

Boston Globe, MA. “City Digging Itself Out.” 1-4-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-1/

Boston Globe, MA. “Cold Nips Many. More Than 100 Go to the Hospitals.” 1-5-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-05-1904-p-2/

Boston Globe, MA. “Cold Wave at Lancaster.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Coldest Ever In Attleboro.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Died Of Exposure.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Boston Globe, MA. “Down to 33 Below.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Fatal Attempt to Get Warm.” 1-6-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-06-1904-p-4/

Boston Globe, MA. “Four Deaths Due to Cold.” 1-5-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-05-1904-p-3/

Boston Globe, MA. “Frozen To Death.” 12-28-1903, p. 1. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-dec-28-1903-p-1/

Boston Globe, MA. “Had to Close Schools.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Hull Buried in Snow.” 1-4-19004, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Icy Touch At Burlington.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Lowell Thawing Out.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Melting Gas Killed Four.” 1-7-1904, p. 8. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-07-1904-p-8/

Boston Globe, MA. “More Deaths in New York.” 1-6-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-06-1904-p-4/

Boston Globe, MA. “New York Feels Effect of the Storm.” 10401904, p. 3. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-3/

Boston Globe, MA. “Nine Probably Dead.” 1-5-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-05-1904-p-3/

Boston Globe, MA. “Perished in New York.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Portland Harbor Freezes.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Portsmouth’s Coldest Day.” 1-4-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-3/

Boston Globe, MA. “Severe Gale at Scituate.” 12-26-1903, p. 9. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-dec-26-1903-p-22/

Boston Globe, MA. “Snapped Telegraph Wires.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Snow Shovelers Killed.” 1-10-1904, p. 8. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-sunday-globe-jan-10-1904-p-104/

Boston Globe, MA. “Storm is Heavy. Will Be Short.” 12-26-1903, p. 9. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-dec-26-1903-p-22/

Boston Globe, MA. “Storm of Uncommon Severity.” 12-26-1903, p. 9. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-dec-26-1903-p-22/

Boston Globe, MA. Three Men Lost. Dredger at Bottom. Went Down Suddenly.” 12-26-1903, p. 1. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-dec-26-1903-p-13/

Boston Globe, MA. “Two N H Towns 35 Below.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Where It’s 28 Below.” 1-4-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-21/

Boston Globe, MA. “Worst in 28 Years.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-daily-globe-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Boston Post, MA. “Body of a Woman in Nantasket Surf.” 1-4-1904, p. 8. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-post-jan-04-1904-p-8/

Boston Sunday Post, MA. “5 Dead in Boston’s Raging Blizzard.” 1-3-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-sunday-post-jan-03-1904-p-2/

Boston Sunday Post, Ma. “Four Deaths in Boston Attributed to Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-sunday-post-jan-03-1904-p-4/

Boston Sunday Post, Ma. “Railroad Man Killed While Clearing Tracks.” 1-3-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-sunday-post-jan-03-1904-p-4/

Boston Sunday Post, MA. “Three Killed in Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-27-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/boston-sunday-post-jan-03-1904-p-4/

Burlington Hawk-Eye, IA. “Death and Ruin On Icy Blasts.” 12-26-1903, p. 1. Accessed 12-24-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/burlington-hawk-eye-dec-26-1903-p-1/

Burlington Hawk-Eye. “Found Frozen to Death.” 12-27-1903, p. 3. Accessed 12-24-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/burlington-hawk-eye-dec-27-1903-p-3/

Carroll Sentinel, IA. “Storm Sweeps East.” 1-5-1904, p. 6. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/carroll-sentinel-jan-05-1904-p-6/

Catskill Mountain News, NY. “News Notes From All About.” 1-1-1904, p. 6. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/margaretville-catskill-mountain-news-jan-01-1904-p-6/

Chariton Democrat, IA. “Frozen to Death in Illinois.” 1-7-1904, p. 7. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/chariton-democrat-jan-07-1904-p-7/

Cook County Herald, Arlington Heights, IL. “Two Men Frozen to Death.” 1-8-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/arlington-heights-cook-county-herald-jan-08-1904-p-3/

Daily Kennebec Journal, Augusta, ME. “Five Maine Central Men Shaken Up at Burnham.” 1-4-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/daily-kennebec-journal-jan-04-1904-p-1/

Daily News, Marshall, MI. “Frozen in the Ice. 1-4-1904. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/marshall-daily-news-jan-04-1904-p-1/

Daily Times, New Brunswick, NJ. “Bitter Cold Wave Arrives on Time.” 1-4-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/new-brunswick-daily-times-jan-04-1904-p-1/

Daily Times, New Brunswick, NJ. “Heavy Snow Storm.” 1-2-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/new-brunswick-daily-times-jan-02-1904-p-17/

Defiance Crescent News, OH. “Frozen to Death.” 12-28-1903, p. 5. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/defiance-crescent-news-dec-28-1903-p-10/

Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, IA. “Cyclone in the South.” 12-27-1903, p. 1. Accessed 12-24-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/dubuque-telegraph-herald-dec-27-1903-p-1/

Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, IA. “Frozen to Death.” 12-28-1903, p. 8. Accessed 12-24-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/dubuque-telegraph-herald-dec-28-1903-p-8/

Evening Journal, Washington, IA. “Polar Cold in East.” 1-6-1904, p. 8. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/washington-evening-journal-jan-06-1904-p-8/

Evening Record, Traverse City, MI. “Condensed News of Michigan.” 1-7-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/traverse-city-evening-record-jan-07-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Boys Frozen to Death.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Coal Barons Thaw Out.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Traffic is Impeded.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Weather in New York.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Intense Cold Over Country.” 1-4-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Touched Record In Ohio.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne News, IN. “Twenty-Six Below Zero.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-news-jan-04-1904-p-2/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Blizzard at Muncie.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Blizzard Hits New York.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Cold Wave at Atlanta.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Coldest of Winter.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Crest of Cold Wave.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Hoosier State Blizzard-Swept.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Man Struck by Train.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Ohio Swept by Storm.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Snow Falls on Boston.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Two Frozen To Death.” 12-30-1903, p. 11. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/fort-wayne-weekly-sentinel-dec-30-1903-p-11/

Indiana Weekly Messenger, PA. “Thermometer Touches Bottom.” 12-30-1903, p. 1. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/indiana-weekly-messenger-dec-30-1903-p-1/

Jasper Herald, IN. “Three Boys Frozen to Death.” 1-8-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/jasper-herald-jan-08-1904-p-3/

Jeffersonville National Democrat, IN. “Frozen to Death.” 1-1-1904, p. 5. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/jeffersonville-national-democrat-jan-01-1904-p-5/

Kokomo Daily Tribune, IN. “Dead in a Snowdrift.” 12-30-1903, p. 6. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/kokomo-daily-tribune-dec-30-1903-p-6/

Kokomo Daily Tribune, IN. “Man Overcome By Cold.” 12-31-1903, p. 6. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/kokomo-daily-tribune-dec-31-1903-p-6/

Le Mars Sentinel, IA. “Wind and Cold Weather.” 12-29-1903, p. 2. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/le-mars-sentinel-dec-29-1903-p-2/

Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts Are Very Severe.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/logansport-daily-reporter-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Middletown Daily Argus, NY. “Frozen To Death.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/middletown-daily-argus-jan-06-1904-p-1/

Muscatine Journal, IA. “Cold Wave is Passing Away.” 12-26-1903, p. 1. Accessed 12-24-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/muscatine-journal-dec-26-1903-p-1/

Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “Ansonia Letter Carrier Dead.” 1-11-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/naugatuck-daily-news-jan-11-1904-p-1/

Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “Found Frozen to Death.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/naugatuck-daily-news-jan-06-1904-p-1/

Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “The Cold Wave Is Over.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/naugatuck-daily-news-jan-06-1904-p-1/

New York Times. “Aftermath of Cold Snap.” 1-7-1904, p. 16. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/new-york-times-jan-07-1904-p-16/

Orange County Press, Middletown, NY. “Local.” 1-8-1904, p. 6. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/middletown-orange-county-press-jan-08-1904-p-6/

Orange County Press, Middletown, NY. “Old Man Frozen To Death.” 1-8-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/middletown-orange-county-press-jan-08-1904-p-1/

Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Blizzard Whirls in Poconos.” 12-27-1903, p. 2. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/philadelphia-inquirer-dec-27-1903-p-2/

Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Dead in his Dugout Where Wildcats Howl.” 1-4-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/philadelphia-inquirer-jan-04-1904-p-3/

Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “In Icy-Fingered Grip of Whirling Blizzard.” 1-4-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/philadelphia-inquirer-jan-04-1904-p-3/

Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Overcome By Cold, Perish By Wayside.” 1-5-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/philadelphia-inquirer-jan-05-1904-p-3/

Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “With Blizzard Snow King Lashes State; Trolley Lines Tied Up; Steam Cars Struggle.” 1-3-1904, p. 3. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/philadelphia-inquirer-jan-03-1904-p-3/

Post-Standard, Syracuse, NY. “In the Grasp of a Blizzard,” 12-28-1903, p. 10. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/syracuse-post-standard-dec-28-1903-p-10/

Postville Review, IA. “News of the World…Domestic.” 1-8-1904, p. 6. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/postville-review-jan-08-1904-p-6/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Coldest Since 1875. Delaware River Frozen Over for the First Time in Many Years.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Factories Close Down.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Intensely Cold.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Mercury Seeks Bottom of Bulb.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald. “Mercury Way Down.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Thermometers Burst. Mercury at Orange, Mass., Reached 50 Below.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Traffic Delayed.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Twenty-nine Below.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-23-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/salt-lake-city-herald-jan-06-1904-p-2/

Sandusky Evening Star, OH. “Around About.” 1-5-1904, p. 4. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/sandusky-evening-star-jan-05-1904-p-4/

Sedalia Sunday Sentinel, MO. “Fierce Blizzard in the East.” 1-8-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/sedalia-weekly-sentinel-jan-08-1904-p-2/

Sunday Herald, Syracuse, NY. “Killed in Snowstorm.” 1-3-1904, p. 22. Accessed 12-28-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/syracuse-sunday-herald-jan-03-1904-p-23/

The News, Frederick, MD. “Cold Records Broken.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/news-jan-06-1904-p-1/

The News, Frederick, MD. “Four Dead In New York.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-26-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/news-jan-06-1904-p-1/

The Register, Rake, IA. “A Week’s Record.” 1-1-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/rake-register-jan-01-1904-p-2/

Titusville Morning Herald, PA. “Frank Friel Found Frozen at His Hovel.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Accessed 12-29-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/titusville-herald-jan-06-1904-p-1/

Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/algona-upper-des-moines-dec-30-1903-p-7/

Waterloo Daily Reporter, IA. “Found Body in Filth.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Accessed 12-25-2018 at: https://newspaperarchive.com/waterloo-daily-reporter-jan-04-1904-p-2/

[1] Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “Ansonia Letter Carrier Dead.” 1-11-1904, p. 1. Notes that he was able to get back home, but was stricken blind “and went into convulsions which ended in his death.”

[2] Boston Globe, MA. “Fatal Attempt to Get Warm.” 1-6-1904, p. 4. Writes that two-year-old Anthony Rangewitz scalded his lungs with steam and died within thirty minutes.

[3] Boston Globe, MA. “Body Found In Drift.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.

[4] Boston Globe, MA. “Body Found In Drift.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. Do not know which of two reports is correct.

[5] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “Three Killed in Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4. Article notes that this was during a “blinding snowstorm,” and that the fang of about twenty men neither saw nor heard the oncoming train.

[6] Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, IA. “Cyclone in the South.” 12-27-1903, p. 1.

[7] Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, IA. “Cyclone in the South.” 12-27-1903, p. 1.

[8] Atlanta Constitution, GA. “Negro Frozen Near Rome.” 12-29-1904, p. 12.

[9] Burlington Hawk-Eye, IA. “Death and Ruin On Icy Blasts.” 12-26-1903, p. 1.

[10] Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7. Notes he was 43.

[11] Upper Des Moines Republican, IA. “Death and Woe in Frigid Blast.” 12-30-1903, p. 7.

[12] Postville Review, IA. “News of the World…Domestic.” 1-8-1904, p. 6.

[13] Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel. “Two Frozen To Death.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.

[14] Chariton Democrat, IA. “Frozen to Death in Illinois.” 1-7-1904, p. 7.

[15] Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel. “Two Frozen To Death.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.

[16] “Slipping and staggering on the frozen streets during the fiercest part of the blizzard yesterday afternoon [25th], Edward Week, fifty-eight years old…was run down by an interurban car…and killed.” (Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, IN. “Man Struck by Train.” 12-30-1903, p. 11.)

[17] Kokomo Daily Tribune, IN. “Man Overcome By Cold.” 12-31-1903, p. 6.

[18] Kokomo Daily Tribune, IN. “Dead in a Snowdrift.” 12-30-1903, p. 6. Victim identified as Gideon W. Harris.

[19] Waterloo Daily Reporter, IA. “Found Body in Filth.” 1-4-1904, p. 2. “In a room reeking with filth, situated on the third floor of an abandoned warehouse building at 216 East Front street, Constable Holliday yesterday [Jan 3] found the frozen body of George Shipper, aged 73 years, which had evidently been separated from life for thirty-six hours…a coroner’s jury…declared that the man had come to his death through exposure.”

[20] Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, IA. “Frozen to Death.” 12-28-1903, p. 8.

[21] Atlanta Constitution. “Two Men Frozen To Death.” 12-29-1904, p. 9.

[22] Atlanta Constitution. “Two Men Frozen To Death.” 12-29-1904, p. 9.

[23] Boston Globe, MA. Three Men Lost. Dredger at Bottom. Went Down Suddenly.” 12-26-1903, p. 1. Notes: “After being pounded for several hours by one of the heaviest seas ever known in Boston harbor, the dredger Gen Poe, the biggest dredging machine in Massachusetts bay, went to the bottom this morning, carrying down with her three men. The catastrophe occurred in Broad sound, midway between Deer Island light and Nix’ mate, at 10:45 a.m., and she now lies in 40 feet of water. The drowned are: George W. Coombs, a government inspector; William O’Neil, a blacksmith employed on the dredger; T. Jones, a deck hand….”

[24] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “5 Dead in Boston’s Raging Blizzard.” 1-3-1904, p. 2.

[25] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “Four Deaths in Boston Attributed to Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4.

[26] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “Four Deaths in Boston Attributed to Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4.

[27] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “Four Deaths in Boston Attributed to Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4.

[28] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “Four Deaths in Boston Attributed to Storm.” 1-3-1904, p. 4.

[29] “One death was due to the low temperature. Harry Stillman, a seaman, was overcome by the cold while climbing around the rigging of the schooner Maggie Hurley…late yesterday afternoon. Being number with the cold, he lost his hold and fell into the water. As soon as he was taken from the water he was hurried to the relief hospital, but the physicians there said that he was dead…Stillman was about 45 years old….” (Boston Globe, MA. “Cold Nips Many. More Than 100 Go to the Hospitals.” 1-5-1904, p. 2.)

[30] Boston Sunday Post, MA. “5 Dead in Boston’s Raging Blizzard.” 1-3-1904, p. 2.

[31] Boston Sunday Post. “Railroad Man Killed While Clearing Tracks.” 1-3-1904, p. 4. Notes victim was hit in the Cambridge freight yards “just below East street…and, on account of the storm, did not hear the approaching train.”

[32] Boston Globe, MA. “Died Of Exposure.” 1-4-1904, p. 2.

[33] Boston Post, MA. “Body of a Woman in Nantasket Surf.” 1-4-1904, p. 8. Writes: “The…body of a woman was beaten against the rocks by the heavy combers near the foot of Atlantic Hill this morning, and the belief is entertained that another ship was wrecked in Saturday’s storm [Jan 2].

[34] Salt Lake Herald, UT. “Thermometers Burst. Mercury at Orange, Mass., Reached 50 Below.” 1-6-1904, p. 2.

[35] Boston Daily Globe, MA. “Frozen To Death.” 12-28-1903, p. 1.

[36] Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “Found Frozen to Death.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.

[37] Jasper Herald, IN. “Three Boys Frozen to Death.” 1-8-1904, p. 3. Daily News, Marshall, MI, of 1-4-1904, notes “Two Loundsberg and one Dutcher boys were discovered Sunday frozen stiff upon the ice.” (“Frozen in the Ice.”

[38] Evening Record, Traverse City, MI. “Condensed News of Michigan.” 1-7-1904, p. 2.

[39] Logansport Daily Reporter, IN. “January Frosts Are Very Severe.” 1-6-1904, p. 2. Victim identified as Edward Edmundson, from Greenfield, TN.

[40] Burlington Hawk-Eye. “Found Frozen to Death.” 12-27-1903, p. 3.

[41] Sunday Herald, Syracuse, NY. “Killed in Snowstorm.” 1-3-1904, p. 22.

[42] Boston Globe, MA. “More Deaths in New York.” 1-6-1904, p. 4.

[43] Sedalia Sunday Sentinel, MO. “Fierce Blizzard in the East.” 1-8-1904, p. 2.

[44] Naugatuck Daily News, CT. “The Cold Wave Is Over.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.

[45] New York Times. “Aftermath of Cold Snap.” 1-7-1904, p. 16. “…death being superinduced by the cold.”

[46] “New York, Jan 6-Deaths and injuries from gas during the recent cold snap have been numerous in the city. Gas froze in many flats and apartments. When Capt. Larsen of the freight barge Claremont opened to door of the cabin today he was met by a rush of coal gas that nearly stifled him. In the cabin he found his mate, Sigmund Goldgrandsen, dead, seated beside the stove. A surgeon from the Presbyterian hospital said the mate had been overcome by the gas fumes. Frederick C. Johnson, 18 years old, was asphyxiated today in his room at 31 Irving pl. Johnson was visiting his uncle, Henry P. Haven, a contractor. The gas pipes in the house had been frozen. Johnson had tried in vain to light his gas on retiring last night and had left the jet turned on. The gas thawed out and killed him. When Frank Coffey retired last night in his room at the New York hotel, 1541 Broadway, he left the gas burning. The gas froze during the night and the light went out. Early this morning the pipes in the building were thawed out and the gas flowed from the open jet in Coffey’s room Coffey was found dead. Two other lodgers were found unconscious. Two other deaths were also reported from the same cause.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Melting Gas Killed Four.” 1-7-1904, p. 8.) [Blanchard: Writes of four deaths; describes three, naming victims, then notes there were two other similar deaths. If so, the total would be five, not four.]

[47] Boston Globe, MA. “Melting Gas Killed Four.” 1-7-1904, p. 8.

[48] Boston Globe, MA. “Melting Gas Killed Four.” 1-7-1904, p. 8.

[49] New York Times. “Aftermath of Cold Snap.” 1-7-1904, p. 16. Victim was on the top floor of his home.

[50] New York Times. “Aftermath of Cold Snap.” 1-7-1904, p. 16. Writes: “The gas pipes had been frozen, and the gas fitters, pouring quantities of wood alcohol down the pipes, melted the frozen pipes so that the gas flowed as well as before. Young Johnson did not know it and paid no attention to the open gas jet in his room.”

[51] Boston Globe, MA. “New York Feels Effect of the Storm.” 1-4-1904, p. 3. Victim was the engine fireman.

[52] Boston Globe, MA. “Perished in New York.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.

[53] Boston Globe, MA. “Perished in New York.” 1-4-1904, p. 7.

[54] Orange County Press, Middletown, NY. “Local.” 1-8-1904, p. 6.

[55] Catskill Mountain News, NY. “News Notes From All About.” 1-1-1904, p. 6.

[56] Boston Globe, MA. “New York Feels Effect of the Storm. Staten Island Man Found Dead…” 1-4-1904, p. 3. On page 7 of evening edition the age is provided and it is noted he lived in Clifton and was found in Clifton park.

[57] Sandusky Evening Star, OH. “Around About.” 1-5-1904, p. 4.

[58] Cook County Herald, Arlington Heights, IL. “Two Men Frozen to Death.” 1-8-1904, p. 3. Writes that Helpen fall from a pole, spraining his hip and was thus unable to move to safety. “The temperature had ranged from 10 to 20 degrees below zero.”

[59] Defiance Crescent News, OH. “Frozen to Death.” 12-28-1903, p. 5.

[60] Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Overcome By Cold, Perish By Wayside.” 1-5-1904, p. 3.

[61] “Williamsport, Pa., Jan. 3.–Word has been received here of the finding of the body of August Swanson, a hermit, who was frozen to death in the intense cold of last week. Curled up before the hearth in a crude dugout in the wilds of Potter county, the body was found yesterday by two woodsmen. Every article of furniture had been burned by the old man in an effort to save himself. Outside the snow was covered with the tracks of catamounts and wild cats, which had tried to break into the hut. While one of he men stood guard with a gun the other summoned help from the nearest neighbor, seven miles away.” (Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Dead in his Dugout Where Wildcats Howl.” 1-4-1904, p. 3.)

[62] Altoona Mirror, PA. 1-5-1904, p. 4, column 2.

[63] Middletown Daily Argus, NY. “Frozen To Death.” 1-6-1904, p. 1. Another source notes his home was between Glen Eyre and Kimbles. (Orange County Press, Middletown, NY. “Old Man Frozen To Death.” 1-8-1904, p. 1.)

[64] Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Overcome By Cold, Perish By Wayside.” 1-5-1904, p. 3. Notes: “This section is experiencing the coldest weather in years, the mercury going to 10 degrees below zero at times.”

[65] Titusville Morning Herald, PA. “Frank Friel Found Frozen at His Hovel.” 1-6-1904, p. 1.

[66] Philadelphia Inquirer, PA. “Overcome By Cold, Perish By Wayside.” 1-5-1904, p. 3. Notes: “Benjamin Gerhart, of Kleinfeltersville, drove ten miles in a blinding snow storm to Womelsdorf and then dropped dead of paralysis of the heart, superinduced by the severe cold.”

[67] Boston Globe, MA. “Four Deaths Due to Cold.” 1-5-1904, p. 3. “Providence, Jan 4….Several deaths have been due to the severe cold and exposure to the blizzard. There were four more today…” For the purpose of contributing to a tally we translate several into three.

[68] “Providence, Jan 9–While clearing snow from the tracks at the Brayton Av crossing of the NY, NH & H railroad today, Daniel Shea, about 35 years of age, and James Shea, 24 years of age, were struck and instantly killed by the northbound New York express. The two men had stopped off one track to get out of the way of a local train, and had no sooner got on the other track when the express struck them.” (Boston Globe, MA. “Snow Shovelers Killed.” 1-10-1904, p. 8.)

[69] The Register, Rake, IA. “A Week’s Record.” 1-1-1904, p. 2.

[70] Jan 9 was a Saturday, thus it appears very unlikely that the reference to Saturday night was the 9th. The previous Saturday was Jan 2.

[71] We have seen other reporting that appears to put the deaths on or about Jan 2.

[72] There is a Hog Island within the Virginia Barrier islands near Exmore in Northampton County. We presume this is the island in reference.

20th Century – Page 356 – Deadliest American Disasters and Large-Loss-of-Life Events (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Ms. Lucile Johns

Last Updated:

Views: 6718

Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Ms. Lucile Johns

Birthday: 1999-11-16

Address: Suite 237 56046 Walsh Coves, West Enid, VT 46557

Phone: +59115435987187

Job: Education Supervisor

Hobby: Genealogy, Stone skipping, Skydiving, Nordic skating, Couponing, Coloring, Gardening

Introduction: My name is Ms. Lucile Johns, I am a successful, friendly, friendly, homely, adventurous, handsome, delightful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.